BDNF 1mg Vial
This protein promotes the survival of nerve cells (neurons) by playing a role in the growth, maturation (differentiation), and maintenance of these cells. In the brain, the BDNF protein is active at the connections between nerve cells (synapses), where cell-to-cell communication occurs. The synapses can change and adapt over time in response to experience, a characteristic called synaptic plasticity. The BDNF protein helps regulate synaptic plasticity, which is important for learning and memory. The BDNF protein is found in regions of the brain that control eating, drinking, and body weight; the protein likely contributes to the management of these functions.
A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, a methionine (Met) substitution for valine (Val) at codon 66 (Val66Met), is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory, but its relevance to clinical disorders is unclear. We generated a variant BDNF mouse (BDNFMet/Met) that reproduces the phenotypic hallmarks in humans with the variant allele. BDNFMet was expressed in brain at normal levels, but its secretion from neurons was defective. When placed in stressful settings, BDNFMet/Met mice exhibited increased anxiety-related behaviors that were not normalized by the antidepressant, fluoxetine. A variant BDNF may thus play a key role in genetic predispositions to anxiety and depressive disorders.
Trafficking of T lymphocytes to specific organs, such as the skin and lungs, is part of the body’s defense mechanism following acute psychological stress. Here we demonstrate that T lymphocytes are also trafficking to the brain in response to psychological stress and are needed to alleviate its negative behavioral consequences. We show that short exposure of mice to a stressor (predator odor) enhanced T-cell infiltration to the brain, especially to the choroid plexus, and that this infiltration was associated with increased ICAM-1 expression by choroid plexus cells. Systemic administration of corticosterone could mimic the effects of psychological stress on ICAM-1 expression. Furthermore, we found that the ability to cope with this stress is interrelated with T-cell trafficking and with the brain and hippocampal BDNF levels. Immunization with a CNS-related peptide reduced the stress-induced anxiety and the acoustic startle response, and restored levels of BDNF, shown to be important for stress resilience. These results identified T cells as novel players in coping with psychological stress, and offers immunization with a myelin-related peptide as a new therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic consequences of acute psychological trauma, such as those found in posttraumatic stress disorder.
Previous studies have shown that infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into the midbrain, near the PAG and dorsal/median raphe nuclei, produced analgesia and increased activity in monoaminergic systems. Alterations in monoaminergic activity have also been implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. The present studies examined the ability of centrally administered BDNF to produce antidepressant-like activity in two animal models of depression, learned helplessness following exposure to inescapable shock and the forced swim test. In the learned helplessness paradigm, vehicle-infused rats pre-exposed to inescapable shock (veh/shock) showed severe impairments in escape behavior during subsequent conditioned avoidance trials, including a 47% decrease in the number of escapes and a 5 fold increase in escape latency, as compared to vehicle-infused rats which received no pre-shock treatment (veh/no shock). Midbrain BDNF infusion (12–24 μg/day) reversed these deficits, and in fact, BDNF-infused rats pre-exposed to inescapable shock (BDNF/shock) showed escape latencies similar to veh/no shock and BDNF/no shock rats. In the forced swim test, BDNF infusion decreased the immobility time by 70% as compared to vehicle-infused controls. Non-specific increases in activity could not account for these effects since general locomotor activity of BDNF- and vehicle-infused animals was not different. These findings demonstrate an antidepressant-like property of BDNF in two animal models of depression, which may be mediated by increased activity in monoaminergic systems.